1803: The Ohio Constitution of 1803 is Ohio’s founding constitution.
a. Article IV, Section 1 assigns the right to vote only to residents for at least one year who are white males over 21 years.b. Article VIII, Section 2 specifies that there “shall be neither slavery nor involuntary servitude in this State.” This language is very similar to that used 60 years later in the 13th amendment to the U.S. Constitution.
1804: Ohio Black Codes Of 1804 made Ohio the first state to establish laws to discourage Blacks from becoming residents and restrict the movement, employment and rights of free Blacks.
1807: Ohio Black Codes Of 1807 extended the Black Codes of 1804 and limited rights to marry and to gun-ownership.
1825: Brief History of Ohio Public Schools notes that the first free school for White students was established in 1825.
1831: First Free Schools for Blacks in Ohio was established by a Quaker Family in Harveysburg, Harveysburg Free Black School – Ohio History Central
1851: Ohio Constitution Of 1851 was Ohio’s second Constitution, and the constitution, as amended, that still is the basis of Ohio’s governance today. Article V, Section 1 is the successor to Article IV, Section1 of the 1803 Constitution. The qualification to be an elector continued to be limited to white male citizens aged 21 years or more. Article I, Section 6 continue to outlaw slavery.
1867 and 1868: The Proposed 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was first ratified by Ohio in 1867. However, in 1868 the ratification was rescinded when the political majority changed in the General Assembly. The 14th Amendment guarantees people of all races equal protection under the law.
1912: Ohio Constitutional Amendments were offered by the Constitutional Convention of 1912. In total 41 amendments were presented to the voters, and 33 were approved. Among the amendments not approved were two changes to Article V, Section 1. The first would have deleted the word “white” from the qualification of electors. The second would have granted women the right to vote.
1923: Ohio Suffrage Amendment was placed on the ballot by the General Assembly to conform to the Federal Constitution. It established universal suffrage by eliminating the words “white male” from Article V, Section 1.
1954: U.S. Supreme Court Decision in Brown v. Board of Education called for the integration of schools by striking down the concept of “separate but equal.”“Today, education is perhaps the most important function of state and local governments. Compulsory school attendance laws and the great expenditures for education both demonstrate our recognition of the importance of education to our democratic society. It is required in the performance of our most basic public responsibilities, even service in the armed forces. It is the very foundation of good citizenship. Today it is a principal instrument in awakening the child to cultural values, in preparing him for later professional training, and in helping him to adjust normally to his environment. In these days, it is doubtful that any child may reasonably be expected to succeed in life if he is denied the opportunity of an education. Such an opportunity, where the state has undertaken to provide it, is a right which must be made available to all on equal terms.”
1964: 1964 Civil Rights Act included Title VI which prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, and national origin in programs and activities receiving federal financial assistance.
1965: Elementary and Secondary Education Act reflected a significant federal role in education funding with the goal of supporting the education of low-income students in primarily urban and rural settings.
2001: No Child Left Behind Act (reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act) put greater emphasis on closing achievement gaps and required the disaggregation of data. It also emphasized comparability of resources in schools.
2003: The 14th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution was finally ratified by Ohio. This action was taken in light of the rescission of ratification that took place in 1868.
2015: Every Student Succeeds Act (reauthorization of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act) continues to emphasize equity and the need to support disadvantaged and high-need students.
EAST GARFIELD ELEMENTARY SCHOOL
41% African Americans
STEUBENVILLE HIGH SCHOOL
28% African Americans 100% Poverty
TOLEDO EARLY COLLEGE
30% African Americans 100% Poverty
STEUBENVILLE WELLS ACADEMY
21% African Americans 100% Poverty
TOLEDO TECHNOLOGY ACADEMY HIGH SCHOOL
17% African Americans 99.8% Poverty
YOUNGSTOWN EARLY COLLEGE
70% African Americans 100% Poverty
CLEVELAND EARLY COLLEGE
82% African Americans 100% Poverty
CLEVELAND SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE
90% African Americans 100% Poverty
AKRON EARLY COLLEGE
36.8% African Americans 100% Poverty
AKRON STEM HIGH SCHOOL
38% African Americans 100% Poverty
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